HP/CP/PAP/PAP+ Whitening Science

Better manufacturing comes from our better understanding of teeth whitening.

Formulating is An Updating Work

Our study aimed to develop and characterize new dental whitening formulation which is as effective as the currently used carbamide peroxide but at significantly lower hydrogen peroxide concentrations.

You can depend on our formulators to help you develop quality oral whitening agents. Our expert scientists conduct feasibility studies to identify critical variables, eliminate inefficiencies, and optimize process development. You will work with a team that commands the experience and equipment to speed your product on its way from R&D through commercialization.

CP and HP teeth whitening science

Effectiveness Doesn’t Come Easy


Years of Study


Formulation Developed


Lab Machines


Challenges Overcome Yearly

Teeth Whitening Ingredients We Use in Production

Hydrogen Peroxide(HP)

Hydrogen peroxide diffuses through the inter-prismatic spaces on the enamel into the tooth. In the tooth, hydrogen peroxide interacts with organic chromophores resulting in a color change of the tooth. This reaction process is influenced by temperature, pH, and light. Hydrogen peroxide is preferred as it breaks down faster, delivering results sooner.

• Molecular formula: H2O2
• Molecular weight: 34.01
• Melting point: -33°C
• Boiling point: 108°C
• Density: 1.13 g/ml at 20°C
• Storage conditions: 2~8°C
• p-value: 2~4(H2O2, 20°C)

Carbamide Peroxide(CP)

Carbamide peroxide is another common ingredient in teeth whitening gels. Carbamide peroxide is composed of urea and hydrogen peroxide. When it comes into contact with water, carbamide peroxide breaks down into hydrogen peroxide and urea. The hydrogen peroxide then acts on the stained teeth to produce a bleaching effect, as explained above.

• Molecular formula: CO(NH2)•H2O2
• Molecular weight: 92.0541
• Melting point: 90~93°C
• Boiling point: 196.6°C at 760 mmHg
• Storage conditions: 2~89°C

Phthalimidoperoxycaproic Acid(PAP)

Phthalimidoperoxycaproic acid which in short, is a synthetic organic peroxy acid mainly used as a bleaching activator, and now also as a teeth whitening agent. PAP is used as a bleaching activator for teeth whitening by whitening the discolored molecules that are in your teeth.

Phthalimidoperoxycaproicacid + Secondary Ingredients (PAP+)

You know PAP, the abbreviation for phthalimidoperoxycaproic acid above. PAP+ is named after PAP for further improvement based on PAP. It’s first invented by Hismile and then studied by Cinoll and many other manufacturers.

PAP+ formula also includes potassium citrate to help with any pre-existing sensitivity that may have prior to whitening teeth. For example, the ingredient hydroxyapatite (HAp), a naturally occurring form of calcium apatite found in bones, saliva, and teeth, is added in the formula to remineralize teeth by replacing minerals and strengthening weakened enamel.

PAP+ teeth whitening chemical

Common Ingredients

Whitening products can contain various ingredients, each with its own specific function and ability to whiten on different levels.


Alcohol dehydrates the gel or brush-on formula so that it stays on teeth to do the job. However, alcohol can also dry out the mouth by decreasing saliva flow, leaving mouth and teeth more susceptible to bad breath and tooth decay.

Blue covarine

Blue covarine is usually combined with silica-based whitening formulas. It has been shown to effectively whiten teeth virtually immediately. It does this by adhering to the surface of teeth and reflecting light more effectively.

Carbamide peroxide

Many gel-based bleaching products that you would purchase in a store contain the active ingredient carbamide peroxide. Carbamide peroxide breaks down into hydrogen peroxide. It takes nearly three times as much carbamide peroxide to produce the same effect as hydrogen peroxide.


Carbopolpolymers are added to teeth whitening gels to thicken, stabilize and make the whitening formula effective over time. Carbopol is usually combined with carbamide peroxide and hydrogen peroxide-based whitening formulas.

Chlorine dioxide

Chlorine dioxide is a bleaching agent that was once seen as an alternative to hydrogen peroxide. It works similarly to peroxide in that it dehydrates the enamel making it more porous so that the stains can be removed. Chlorine dioxide-based whitening products are now banned in the UK amid concerns of the longer term damage as a result of the increased porosity of the enamel. It is recommended to avoid products containing chlorine dioxide.

Citric acid

Citric acid oils such as those found in lemon and orange peels have been shown to whiten teeth, and so are common ingredients in whitening strips.


Glycerin speeds up the whitening process by actually stripping enamel of moisture so that the whitening agent can get to the subsurface stains. This is the part of the whitening process where sensitivity can occur. Glycerin is used to extend the shelf-life of the product, as well.

Hydrogen peroxide

Hydrogen peroxide is the most common whitening ingredient used in dental office whitening procedures. These procedures use a higher concentration of hydrogen peroxide than the typical 3% people usually buy to keep in their medicine cabinet. These stronger hydrogen peroxide gels need to be properly applied to get the best effect and reduce soft tissue irritation. The advantage to the stronger formulas is that results are seen much faster and can be even faster with the use of a gel-activating light.

Purified water

Purified water is used to create the solution of whitening ingredients.


A form of silica dioxide is commonly used in toothpastes. Silica particles are abrasive and wear down the pellicle coating on the tooth to release stains and polish teeth while brushing.

Sodium chloride

Sodium chloride is the chemical name for table salt. This ingredient has been proven as an effective whitening agent and may be used in non-peroxide whitening products.

Sodium hexametaphosphate and pyrophosphates

Both the ingredients are known for their ability to break down extrinsic stains and prevent tartar. They also have the added advantage of clinging to the pellicle to prevent further stains. They also improve the quality and stability of the whitening product. Pyrophosphate in particular temporarily inhibits the formation of hydroxylapatite (the mineral in tooth enamel) which allows the whitening agent to do its job.

Sodium hydroxide

Commonly known as lye, it is the cleaning agent in soap and a common whitening ingredient in whitening toothpastes. It is used because it’s effective in dissolving protein based deposits, which is what the pellicle coating is on the enamel is made of.

Sodium saccharin

Sodium saccharin is an artificial sweetener.

Sodium stannate

Sodium stannate is a colorless salt that is used as stabilizing agent for hydrogen peroxide. A stabilizing agent is needed to keep the peroxide from degrading so the peroxide effect can last longer.


Xylitol is a plant-derived sweetener that does not impact blood sugar. It also has the ability to reduce tooth decay by helping to remineralize enamel.

how Hydrogen Peroxide chemical whitening works in ingredients

Popular Questions and Answers

What ingredients do the best teeth whitening toothpastes contain?

Popular teeth whitening toothpastes use hydrogen peroxide and silica. Silica teeth whitening products are usually best for sensitive teeth and gums. Like Arm & Hammer whitening toothpaste, the active ingredient is peroxide. To sum up, toothpastes usually include one of three whitening ingredients: Mild abrasives, hydrogen peroxide and carbamide peroxide.

Can whitening damage teeth?

Is teeth whitening safe? The answer is no, teeth whitening doesn’t damage tooth enamel. Teeth whitening involves bleaching your teeth to make them lighter. It can’t make teeth brilliant white, but it can lighten the existing color by several shades.

The main portion of the tooth, the dentin, is the portion of the tooth that’s responsible for teeth’s color. The teeth are first coated with a whitening solution on the front surface of the tooth. The solution will then travel through the tooth enamel to the dentin. The stained tissue in the inner layer will begin to lighten.

What ingredients do the best teeth whitening gel contain?

Peroxide is the active ingredient in nearly all tooth whitening products. There are two types – carbamide peroxide and hydrogen peroxide. Both work essentially the same way. Peroxide breaks down and allows oxygen into the enamel of teeth, which bleaches them. Carbamide Peroxide is hydrogen peroxide combined with urea (an aqueous solution). Tooth whitening products containing carbamide peroxide typically range from concentrations of 6% to 22%.

What ingredients do the best teeth whitening strips contain?

Strips are made from a thin, flexible plastic and coated with a low concentration of bleaching product. The strips are pre-packaged and placed on the teeth, easily conforming to the shape of the teeth. To make sure teeth whitening strips work, several ingredients including hydrogen peroxide, chlorine dioxide, PEG compounds etcs.

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